Eye and Vision Problems

Through the American Optometric Association, the North Carolina Optometric Society provides doctor-reviewed, doctor-approved information about the most common eye conditions.

If you are having vision or eye problems, see a NCOS-member optometrist today.

Common Eye and Vision Conditions:
Astigmatism
Cataract
Conjunctivitis
Diabetic Retinopathy
Dry Eye
Glaucoma
Keratoconus
Macular Degeneration
Ocular Hypertension
Presbyopia


Astigmatism
Astigmatism is a vision condition that causes blurred vision due either to the irregular shape of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye, or sometimes the curvature of the lens inside the eye.


Cataract
A cataract is a cloudy or opaque area in the normally clear lens of the eye. Depending upon its size and location, it can interfere with normal vision. 

Most cataracts develop in people over age 55, but they occasionally occur in infants and young children. Usually cataracts develop in both eyes, but one may be worse than the other.


Conjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent layer that lines the inner eyelid and covers the white part of the eye.

The three main types of conjunctivitis are infectious, allergic and chemical. The infectious type, commonly called "pink eye" is caused by a contagious virus or bacteria.


Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetes is a disease that interferes with the body's ability to use and store sugar and can cause many health problems.

One, called diabetic retinopathy, can weaken and cause changes in the small blood vessels that nourish your eye's retina, the delicate, light sensitive lining of the back of the eye. These blood vessels may begin to leak, swell or develop brush-like branches.


Dry Eye
The tears your eyes produce are necessary for overall eye health and clear vision.

Dry eye means that your eyes do not produce enough tears or that you produce tears which do not have the proper chemical composition.


Glaucoma
Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the internal pressure in your eyes increases enough to damage the nerve fibers in your optic nerve and cause vision loss.

The increase in pressure happens when the passages that normally allow fluid in your eyes to drain become clogged or blocked. The reasons that the passages become blocked are not known.


Keratoconus
Keratoconus is a vision disorder that occurs when the normally round cornea (the front part of the eye) becomes thin and irregular (cone) shaped.

This abnormal shape prevents the light entering the eye from being focused correctly on the retina and causes distortion of vision.


Macular Degeneration
Macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in America. It results from changes to the macula, a portion of the retina that is responsible for clear, sharp vision and is located at the back of the eye.


Ocular Hypertension
Ocular hypertension is an increase in the pressure in your eyes that is above the range considered normal with no detectable changes in vision or damage to the structure of your eyes. 

The term is used to distinguish people with elevated pressure from those with glaucoma, a serious eye disease that causes damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.


Presbyopia
Presbyopia is a vision condition in which the crystalline lens of your eye loses its flexibility, which makes it difficult for you to focus on close objects.